HPV Test – Human Papilloma Virus
What is HPV?
HPV means human papilloma virus. It is a very common virus. There are about 100 types of HPV that can affect different parts of the body. About 30 types of HPV can affect the genital organs – including vagina, cervix, penis, scrotum rectum and anus. Of these, approximately 13 types are considered “high-risk” and result in cancer of the cervix.
HPV test in Omnigen
The test is performed by using the PCR method (Polymerase Chain Reaction). Genomic DNA is isolated from a sample of cervical smear and checked for 41 subtypes of HPV. For standardization, PCR product is submitted to hybridization with probes immobilized in micro-arrays (microarrays CE IVD – DNA chips) and can recognize the 41 subtypes of HPV. The result of hybridization is visualized with special analyzer and we control the results with a special software.
What is cancer of the cervix?
Cervical cancer is a pathological cell deterioration and usually progresses over time. It can affect women of any age but is more common in women after their 40s.
How common is HPV?
The emergence of human papilloma virus (HPV) that affects the genitals is very common. It is estimated that up to 20 million people have active HPV infection at any given time. In the United States 5.5 million new cases of genital HPV infection appear each year. Most men and women – about the 80% of sexually active people – are infected with HPV at some point in their lives, but most people do not know they have the virus.
How can you be infected by HPV;
The human papilloma virus (HPV) of genitals is transmitted through sexual contact. Some types of HPV cause genital warts, (hard, rough bumps developed on the skin). Anyone who is sexually active can be infected with HPV.
What are the symptoms of HPV;
In many cases, HPV does not cause any symptoms. When symptoms exist, the most common is the presence of warts in the genital area. Signs of infection may occur weeks, months or even years after the infection.
How can HPV be diagnosed?
The human papilloma virus (HPV) can be detected by the following ways:
- Pap Test – During the test a cell sample is collected from the vagina and cervix. The cells are then examined under microscope for morphological alterations.
- HPV DNA Test – The method detects genetic material (DNA) of 41 subtypes of HPV, some of them associated with cancer of the cervix. The sample used for the test is generally collected at the same time as the Pap test.
- Colposcopy – It is the overview of the skin and mucous membranes of the female genital system using vaginal speculum. Abnormal cells in Pap test are the indication for colposcopy.
How is it treated?
The treatments – when necessary – are the following:
- Cryosurgery – Freezing the wart with liquid nitrogen.
- Electrosurgical procedure (LEEP) – using a special wire loop for the removal of abnormal cells.
- Electrocautery – cauterization of warts.
- Treatment with laser – using laser to destroy the warts and any abnormal cells.
- Pharmaceutical ointment – pharmaceutical ointments applied directly to warts.
In some cases, no treatment is needed. However, your doctor will closely monitor the changes of the cells during the examination at regular appointments.
Only a small number of women infected with HPV develop cell alterations to be treated.